Monday, March 9, 2020

Braque the Fogotten Cubist Master essays

Braque the Fogotten Cubist Master essays Although George Braque (May 13, 1882 - Aug. 31, 1963) was one of the most influential painters of the twentieth century his name is all but forgotten. He has received little credit for his efforts towards the creation of analytic cubism. Many art historians believe that his prestigious role as father of analytic cubism was cut short because of Picassos fame. Many arguments have arisen asking the question: Who is the father of cubism? There is no doubt that Picasso started the spark which ignited modern art movements with the creation of Les Demoiselles dAvignon.. But, soon after Picasso created this work Braque created Houses at LEstaque. This painting started the analytic phase of cubism. With this in mind, it can be stated that Picasso is the father of modern twentieth century art and Braque is the father of analytic cubism. George Braque is one of the most influential painters of the twentieth century. He co-worked with Picasso to create cubism and helped spark all the future art movements of the twentieth century. As well as this, he was the influence that made Picasso the fame that he was to become. Braque has never received the recognition he should have because of Picassos fame, but his personal position in the art community was high and his involvement with World War One was a major culprits that aided in his downfall in artistic popularity. Who the father of cubism?, has always been a question that has pondered the minds of art historians and scholars. It is clear though that both Braque and Picasso played their prominent role in the creation of cubism. Picasso provided, with his proto-Cubist "Demoiselles," the initial liberating shock. But it was Braque, largely because of his admiration for Cezanne, who provided much of the early tendency toward geometrical forms. Braques early tendency towards geometric form and cubes wa...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Environmental issues Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Environmental issues - Research Paper Example Can only produce energy for a specified time c. Extra electricity produced cannot be stored d. Extraction and storage of certain elements (hydrogen) are difficult. 4) Conclusion Alternative Energy Sources: A Panacea to Oil Dependence The world economy, to meet the energy requirements and needs, has to utilize fuel whether renewable or non-renewable. The future of the economy of this world depends on alternative renewable energy sources. Since, non-renewable resources are depleting quickly, renewable resources could be an answer to ending human dependence on oil but it could have both positive and negative impacts on a sustainable world. Using renewable energy sources will provide an alternative to oil and fossil fuels alike, thus ending the dependency on them. This in turn will lead to a decrease in the ecological problems especially those of global warming that are largely caused by the use of oil and fossil fuels as a source of energy. If the dependency of energy is not shifted fro m oil and other fossil fuels to alternative energy resources, the world may have to face serious disadvantages including economic and environmental (Heinberg, 2003). Another reason how alternative energy sources can help as a more dependable source of energy is that fossil fuel and oil resources are scarce and running out, therefore finding alternative means is important to ensure a constant supply of energy for our future generations as well (Heinberg, 2003). ... Therefore in order to keep this world from facing such devastating crises, there is a vital need that the oil dependency is reduced and alternative means are explored (Rau, 2010). There is a grave need for reducing the levels of pollution in the environment. A shift from reliance and dependence on the non-renewable energy sources will create opportunities such as the utilization of waste and junk, as junk can be used as a source of fuel. Not only will this way the pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels and oil be reduced, but this approach will also lead to the alternative methods of providing sources of energy to meet the global energy requirements, such as the use of energy for internal heating systems for homes, etc. (Rau, 2010). The use of alternative energy sources will also help the growing energy needs of the developing countries. As the developing world advances, there will be an increase in the energy needs. These developing needs can be met by the production and consum ption of energy that is produced domestically. This way the development of the developing countries will be supported, more and more industries and businesses will have their energy needs met and the fulfillment of energy needs will make for availability of greater businesses and job availability needs (McNamee, 2008). The utilization of renewable energy sources will rid nations from dependence on other nations for oil as a source of energy. Renewable energy sources can be produced domestically anywhere. This will make it easier for every nation to be independent and take care of their energy needs without any sort of reliance on other nations. Not only will it make for a  better and

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Sit-Coms(American History) Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Sit-Coms(American History) - Research Paper Example Archie Bunker: Now thats where I got you, wise guy, theres a black guy who works down at the building with me, hes got a bumper sticker on his car that says Black is Beautiful so whats the matter with black beauties? M.A.S.H.: This show was based on three army doctors. This is recognized to be one of the dark comedies as it deals with very grave social issues which include race, and the various absurdity of life. The sitcom has dealt with women and their issues in life in a relatively lighter manner. The show has a number of dialogues to show how serious issues in those days have been dealt with and moved into a comedy as well. The dialogue below: Margaret, "Whats wrong Frank?" Frank, "Oh, those guys make me SO mad.........theyre always fooling around and nobody seems to care except you and me! Margaret, "I know Frank, theyre a disgrace! Not one of them is a respectable officer like you, they certainly dont deserve to wear those bars." FRANK SWELLS UP Margaret, "Theyre always conniving to make you look bad. Its time to do something about them Frank! Lets go call General Hammond right now and tell him what theyre up to. Ill bet hell put you in charge and get rid of those jokers, then WE can run this camp like it should be!" Frank puffing his chest out, "Youre right Snookems, lets go do that while theyre busy!" Margaret, "Oh Frank, I just love it when you take control." Wes Gehring "MASH turns 30: the TV series dark comedy was a paean to the ludicrousness of war. - Entertainment - television program review", USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education),, 06 Sep, 2009,

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Marketing Managers Marketing Mix Marketing Essay

Marketing Managers Marketing Mix Marketing Essay The Marketing Mix, a basic tool of Marketing managers, the particular mixture of marketing techniques, for example, pricing, packaging, and advertising, used to promote the sale of a product. Marketing managers bring the elements of the Four Ps together, combining them to achieve a greater result from their combination then each of the individual effects of the Four Ps. In brief this assignment is concerned about marketing management .It covers in details about the concept of marketing mix with the aid of PepsiCo Inc., Which I have taken as a case study in exploring the way this organization has applied the marketing mix. CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION BACKGROUN OF THE COMPANY LITERATURE SURVEY IN MARKETING MIX MARKETING MIX IN PEPSICO INC CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX INTRODUCTION Marketing is about identifying human and social needs, in shortest form may be meeting the needs profitably. In other words marketing can be defined as an organizational function and set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and managing customer relationships in ways thats benefit the organization and its stakeholders (marketing management, Philip Kotler Kevin lane Keller 13th Edition 2006). Mainly marketing was not being done only with the marketing department of the organization. It needs to interact with the aspects of the customers experience marketers must properly manage all possible points to satisfy the customer. Satisfying the customers was not an easy task for a marketer to market his product, a proper marketing plan definitely needed for the success of the product for this, marketing mix was a very important tool for the proper marketing plan in success. Thats why now a days marketing mix as become a very vital role in the organization products. The proper marketing mix definitely gives a positive growth and enabling the organization to increase the market share in the particular target market. MARKETING MIX The term marketing mix refers to the four major areas of decision making in the marketing process that are blended the results desired by the organization. The four elements of the marketing mix are sometimes referred to the four Ps of marketing. The marketing mix shapes the role of marketing with in all types of organization, both profit and non-profit. Marketing managers make numerous decision based on the various sub elements of the marketing mix, all in an attempt to satisfy the needs and wants of customers. In recent times, we have seen the explosion of new media (Internet, viral marketing, event marketing, product placement, etc.) decreased television viewership, the advent of TiVo and similar technology where viewers can be skip through commercials, and increased cost-cutting pressures. All of this has combined to increase demands for marketing departments to maximize the return on their marketing investments that is to optimize the combination of marketing and advertising investments in order to generate the greatest sales growth and or maximize profits. Marketing mix modelling measures the potential value of all marketing inputs and identifies marketing investments that are most likely to produce long-term revenue growth. As a marketing manager of PepsiCo Inc., is a world leader in convenient snacks, foods and beverages with revenues of more than $39 billion and over 185,000 employees. Here i am going to discuss about my organization, organization marketing strategy and mainly the marketing mix implemented by PepsiCo. BACKGROUND OF THE COMPANY NAME : PEPSI CO COUNTRY OF ORGIN : UNITED STATES INDUSTRY : Food Snacks Non-alcoholic Beverages CEO : Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi PRODUCTS : Pepsi : Mountain Dew : Sierra Mist : Starbucks Frappucino : Lipton Iced Tea : Tropicana products, Etc., HISTORY The Pepsi Cola Company began in 1898 by a Pharmacist and Industrialist Caleb Bradham, but it only became known as PepsiCo when it merged with Frito Lay in 1965. Until 1997, it also owned KFC, Pizza Hut, and Taco Bell, but these fast-food restaurants were spun off into Tricon Global Restaurants, now Yum! Brands, Inc. PepsiCo purchased Tropicana in 1998 and Quaker Oats in 2001. In December 2005, PepsiCo surpassed Coca-Cola Company in market value for the first time in 112 years since both companies began to compete.PepsiCo, Incorporated (Short for Pepsi Company) (NYSE:  PEP) is a large multinational with interests in manufacturing, marketing and selling a wide variety of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, as well as salty, sweet and grain-based snacks, and other foods. Besides the Pepsi-Cola brands. PepsiCo is a world leader in convenient snacks, foods and beverages with revenues of more than $39 billion and over 185,000 employees. In India PepsiCo gained entry to India in 1988, by creating ventures with Punjab government-owned Punjab Agro Industrial Corporation (PAIC) and Voltas India Limited. This joint venture marketed and sold Lehar Pepsi until 1991, when the use of foreign brands was allowed; PepsiCo bought out its partners and ended the joint venture in 1994. In 2003, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a non-governmental organization in New Delhi, said aerated waters produced by soft drinks manufacturers in India, including multinational giants PepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company, contained toxins, including lindane, DDT, malathion and chlorpyrifos pesticides that can contribute to cancer, a breakdown of the immune system and cause birth defects. Tested products included Coke, Pepsi, 7 Up, Mirinda, Fanta, Thumps Up, Limca, and Sprite. CSE found that the Indian-produced Pepsis soft drink products had 36 times the level of pesticide residues permitted under European Union regulations; Coca Colas 30 times.C SE said it had tested the same products in the US and found no such residues. However, this was the European standard for water, not for other drinks. No law bans the presence of pesticides in drinks in India. In 2006, the CSE again found that soda drinks, including both Pepsi and Coca-Cola, had high levels of pesticides in their drinks. Both PepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company maintain that their drinks are safe for consumption and have published newspaper advertisements that say pesticide levels in their products are less than those in other foods such as tea, fruit and dairy products. In the Indian state of Kerala, sale and production of Pepsi-Cola, along with other soft drinks, was banned by the state government in 2006, but this was reversed by the Kerala High Court merely a month later. Five other Indian states have announced partial bans on the drinks in schools, colleges and hospitals. ( LITERATURE SURVEY MARKETING Marketing is a social and managerial process where by individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others (kotler and Armstrong principles of marketing) MARKETING MIX Marketing mix is the set of controllable tactical marketing tools that the form blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. marketing mix is consist of every thing the firm can do to influence the demand for its products the many possibilities can be collected in to four groups of variables 4pproduct, price, place, and promotion (kotler Armstrong ).The marketing mix principle are controllable variable which have to be carefully manage and must need the target customers. All elements of the marketing mix are linked and support each other. PRODUCT The first element in the marketing mix is the product .The term product refers to the tangible physical products as well it includes services. Product means the goods and services combination the company offers to the target market. (Kotler Armstrong) .An object or a service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. A typical example of a mass produced service is the hotel industry. A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system. Product is divided in to three basic levels: Core products Actual products Augmented products Core Products The perceived or real core benefit or service to be gained from a product. Actual Product A composite of the features and capabilities offered quality and durability, design and product styling, packaging and brand name. Augmented Products Support for the product, including customer service, warranty, delivery and credit, personnel, installation and after-sales support. PRICE The second element in marketing mix is price. The price of the product covers all the expenses incurred in manufacturing and selling. Price is the amount of money customers have to pay to obtain the product.(kotler armstrong) .It is determined by a number of factors including market share, competition, material costs, product identity and the customers perceived value of the product. The business may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same product. For example: When pricing a new product, businesses can use either market penetration pricing or a skimming strategy. Types of Pricing PENETARTION PRICING: Penetration pricing is the pricing technique of setting a relatively low initial entry price, a price that is often lower than the eventual market price. The expectation is that the initial low price will secure market acceptance by breaking down existing brand loyalties. Penetration pricing is most commonly associated with a marketing objective of increasing market share or sales volume, rather than short term profit maximization. SKIMMING PRICING: Skimming pricing is the strategy of establishing a high initial price for a product with a view to skimming the cream off the market at the upper end of the demand curve. It is accompanied by heavy expenditure on promotion. A skimming strategy may be recommended when the nature of demand is uncertain, when a company has expended large sums of money on research and development for a new product, when the competition is expected to develop and market a similar product in the near future, or when the product is so innovative that the market is expected to mature very slowly. Pricing objectives usually four forms: Profitability Volume Meeting the Competition Prestige Profitability Profitability means that the firm focuses mainly on maximizing its profit. Under profitability, a company increases its prices so that additional equals the increase in product production cost. Volume Volume pricing objectives a company aims maximize sales volume with in a given specific profit margin. The focus of volume pricing is increasing sales rather than on an immediate increase in profits. Meeting the Competition Meeting the price level competitors is another pricing strategy. It is focusing in less on price and more on non-price competition items such as location and services. Prestige Prestige pricing refers to the practice of setting a high price for an product, throughout its entire life cycle as opposed to the short term opportunistic high price of price skimming. This is done in order to evoke perceptions of quality and prestige with the product or service. PROMOTION Promotion is the third element in the marketing mix.Promotion means that the activities communicate the merits of the product and persuade the target customers to buy their product. (kotler) Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements advertising, public relations, word of mouth and point of sale. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principle elements together, which is common in film promotion. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from television and cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. One of the most notable means of promotion today is the Promotional Product, as in useful items distributed to targeted audiences with no obligation attached. This category has grown each year for the past decade while most other forms have suffered. It is the only form of advertising that targets all five senses and has the recipient thanking the giver. Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trad e fairs and events. Word of mouth is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important role in word of mouth and Public Relations. ( For example a consumer is likely to want only one variant of your product and expect to purchase it immediately. A retailer is likely to want limited stock of a number of variants and not expect to pay for 60 days. A distributor is looking at large volumes of product in all its variants at greatly discounted rates. Your distribution policy needs to take account of these variables. If it does not, then you will find yourself in a very embarrassing position with a customer sooner or later which would result in the loss of a sale. The elements of the communication process are: Sender Decoding Message / Media Decoding Receiver Feedback Noise There are four promotion tools. Each promotion tools has its own unique characteristics and function. Advertising Sales promotion Public relations Personal selling (Term explanations are in Appendix) PLACE The fourth element of the marketing mix is place .Place includes company activities that makes the product available to target customers (kotler) Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet. Place refers to having the right product, in the right location, at the right time to be purchased by consumers. This proper placement of product is done through middle people called the channel of distribution. The channel of distribution is comprised of interdependent manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers. Each participant in the channel of distribution is concerned with three basic utilities: time, place, and possession. Time utility refers to having a product available at the time that will satisfy the needs of consumers. Place utility occurs when a firm provides satisfaction by locating products where they can be easily acquired by consumers . The last utility is possession utility, which means that wholesalers and retailers in the channel of distribution provide services to consumers with as few obstacles as possible. MARKETING MIX IN PEPSI PRODUCT As per kotler said product means any thing that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption and might satisfy a want or need .mostly products are fall into two segments .consumer products and industrial products The Pepsi drink contains basic ingredients found in most other similar drinks including carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup, sugar colourings, phosphoric acid, citric acid and natural flavours. The caffeine free Pepsi cola contains the same ingredients but no caffeine. Quality Pepsi follows one quality standard across the globe. Pepsi has a long-standing commitment to protecting the consumers whose trust and confidence in its products is the bedrock of its success. In order to ensure that consumers stay informed about the global quality of all Pepsi products sold in world .Pepsi products carry a quality assurance seal on them. The core benefit is drink for refreshment without alcohol and the feature is black colour with contain Aspartame (Nutra Sweet), Sucralose (splenda), Acesulfame Potassium (Sunnett). Augmented Product: Good customer support (i.e. Accessible, fast) Differentiation Pepsi has attempted to differentiate its products from cokes, but with little success. In an attempt to differentiate its products from cokes, Pepsi shifted its focus to the growing American teenage market in the 1990s, while coke continued to target baby boomers. Pepsi focused on varietal differentiation since 1999 by introducing a string of niche products although product innovation has been quickly copied by Coke. Since product extensions generate considerable uncertainty with modest results and high cost, both firms could jointly de-escalate the introduction of new products in favour of focusing on core brands, with some emphasis on product innovation. Pepsi could signal this intent by announcing its strategy publicly, hopefully encouraging Coke to follow suit. Brand Extension in Pepsi PRICING Pricing is the only mix which generate the turn over for the organization the remaining are the variable cost for the organization. Price must support all elements of marketing mix, pricing is very difficult and must reflect and supply demand relationship. Types of pricing Strategy. Penetration pricing Penetration Pricing is a market-based approach to pricing wherein the price is set to a sufficiently low level (below the prices of competing products) to make the product attractive to the mass market. The aim is to achieve a large market share by high initial sales. It is introducing the product at a low price intended to capture the mass market for the product or service. Skimming pricing A product pricing strategy by which a firm charges the highest initial price that customer will pay. As the demand of the first customers is satisfied, the firm lowers the price to attract another, more price-sensitive segment. Therefore, the skimming strategy gets its name from skimming successive layers of cream, or customer segments, as prices are lowered over time. Competition pricing Method in which a seller uses prices of competing products as a benchmark instead of considering owns costs or the customer demand. Product Line pricing Product lining is the marketing strategy of offering for sale several related products. Unlike product bundling, where several products are combined into one, lining involves offering several related products individually. A line can comprise related products of various sizes, types, colours, qualities, or prices. Line depth refers to the number of product variants in a line. Line consistency refers to how closely relate the products that make up the line are. Line vulnerability refers to the percentage of sales or profits that are derived from only a few products in the line. Bundle Pricing Another pricing adjustment designed to increase sales is to offer discounted pricing when customers purchase several different products at the same time.   Termed bundle pricing, the technique is often used to sell products that are complementary to a main product.   For buyers, the overall cost of the purchase shows a savings compared to purchasing each product individually. Psychological Pricing Psychological pricing or price ending is a marketing practice based on the theory that certain prices have a psychological impact. The retail prices are often expressed as odd prices: a little less than a round number. The ASIA CSD market is mature. The industry sales growth is largely driven by population growth as well as the amount of advertising and product innovation taking in the industry. Given the mature nature of the market, both PepsiCo and coca-cola have resorted to pricing discrimination strategies to maximise the value of the consumer demand. Direct Pricing Discrimination The simplest form of extracting customer surplus is charging customers with different prices based on their location and purchasing power. This is evident in the international operations of both Pepsi and Coca cola. Cola prices in Mexico, Brazil and Eastern Europe are lower than prices in Asia. Restaurant fountain drinks, single drinks at gas stations and take-home packs at supermarkets have all different prices on a per-unit basis even though their costs adjusted for packaging and distribution would not warrant such a discrepancy. Obviously, such segmentation helps situational-based pricing differences. In-Direct Pricing Discrimination Quantity discounts along with price coupons used in supermarkets are obvious indirect price discrimination tools Pepsi can use. However, the most effective indirect price discrimination tool Pepsi has is in fact its brand name. The Pepsi brand equity actually allows the company to maintain its pricing power. Retailers use this product category to induce store traffic and create additional sales, which in turn reduces their power relative to Pepsi. Given the 80% margin on concentrate, it is easy to see why Wal-Mart and other discount retailers can undercut Pepsis pricing with private labels, but still they will be ineffective in stealing Pepsi customers as long as Pepsis brand (and Cokes for that sake) maintains high customer loyalty. PROMOTION The successful products are service means nothing and less the benefits of such service can be communicated clearly in to the target market. Normally the promotional mix consists of: Advertising Public relations sales promotion Personal selling Direct mail internet, e-commerce Normally Pepsi spending more on advertising rather than any other promotion mix. The main promotional strategy for Pepsi is advertising on media and taking part in social corporate events and sometimes Pepsi also offering sales promotions during the non-peak periods to retain the sales partly, now Pepsi advertising in internet also. As a marketing manager of Pepsi should go with Virgos advertising strategy to overcome the competitor and also Pepsi should contribute public relation also that will definitely give positive and rapid sales increase. PLACE The distribution and logistics operations of the PepsiCo, one of the worlds leading beverages and snack foods companies. The distribution system of the company clearly explaining the significance of various distribution channels used including supermarkets/retail stores, fountain/restaurant, convenience stores, vending machines and others for distributing beverages and snack foods. It also describes the logistics operations of PepsiCos bottler (Pepsi Americas) and elaborates on how by employing the latest wireless technology solutions it enhanced the efficiency of its distribution and logistics operations significantly. CONCLUSION Pepsi Inc., as built reputation around the world as a major player in the soft drink market as well as the leader in the snack food industry. This has been done by creating a wholesome environment for their customers all the while maintaining its integrity. This can be seen in the marketing mix which is the successful mix such as product, price, promotion and distribution. But in PepsiCo distribution must understand the importance of an efficient distribution and logistics management system in reducing costs and creating value for customers. An effective marketing program brings together all of the elements of the marketing mix to achieve the organisations marketing objectives by delivering to customers what they want and need. Thus, the most successful companies will be those that can meet these needs most effectively. REFERENCES Marketing a Service for Profit: A Practical Guide to Key Service Marketing Concepts By Ian Ruskin-Brown, Greg Clark, Published by Kogan Page Publishers, 2007 Marketing By Richard Sandhusen Published by Barrons Educational Series, 2008 The Marketing Mix Published by Primedia Corporate University, 1998 Marketing management By Philip Kotler and Armstrong Web References

Monday, January 20, 2020

Casella wines ? Export success :: essays research papers

1.Identify its international markets   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  US and North America identified o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Distribution network – 44 states. o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Size – initially estimated 20-30 thousand cartons to 100 thousand cartons, reality was 20 to 200 thousand. o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Annual sales $3 million.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  UK o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Some regional supermarkets hoping to expand to majors.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mainland Europe o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Some beginning sales. 2.Describe and analyse the reason for its international expansion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Increase sales/find new markets – domestic market oversupplied   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Minimise competitive risk   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Economies of scale   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cushioning economic cycle   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Comparative advantage o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  High cost of labour and land in US. 3.Explaing the influences on this business in the global market Political Tensions between free trade and protection   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Globalisation seeing removal of barriers   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Eg. Quotas, tariffs, subsidies – statistics   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Exports of wine have increased from 3% of sales to 52% of sales in 2002. this equals $2.3 billion dollars or 414 million litres   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  US greatest source of export growth   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Australia’s export policy has led to major reforms in the Australian wine industry   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬ËœRationalisation of wine production’ leading to overall efficiency giving them cost advantages over their competitors and reshaping of distribution lines.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  4th largest wine exported in the world with 5% of global market International organisations and treaties   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1994 Uruguay multilateral agreement (WTO)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Agreement to reduce protection on agricultural products (wines/grapes) by 36% by 2000   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  UK has the largest export market of wine Trade agreements   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  US and Australia have strong trade relations and trade agreements War in the Middle East Weak economic conditions Social Consumer tastes   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Global markets have been increasingly integrated   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Growing demand for mass market, high quality wines and a recognisable brand   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Marketing of wines ‘other benefits’ has increased consumption globally   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Strong economic growth period sees wine viewed as a luxury good, something consumers buy when they feel conditions are good as their incomes are increasing. Also at this particular price range fluctuations do not vary with economic conditions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Strong market for Australian markets taking off in the US Financial   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Currency fluctuations   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Weak Australian dollar has helped making Yellow Tail a better taste at $7 and a lower price than its Californian counterparts which are hobbled by high cost of land and labour   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Currency fluctuations would have to get way about 70 cents for Casella to be unprofitable without a price change Legal   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  None mentioned 4.Explain the strategies used by the business to achieve its target markets

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Internet security Essay

In the developed and developing world, the use of the internet has increased in popularity. The use of the internet has become the preferred mode of communication and resources for various players like industries, corporations, telecommunications, and governments and in business. In business, the internet has facilitated financial transactions that have greatly changed the face of business making it fast and simple and in conformation to the global village the technology has created. With the increased use of the internet, there has been a corresponding increase in cyber crime from criminals who are seeking either financial gains or other advantages for example military. The frequency of these attacks is very high and the levels of sophistication used are great . This makes it difficult for many organizations to determine new threats, their risk factors and ways of dealing with the menace (Cetron, et al, 2009). Many times it is difficult for the organizations to determine which attacks to deal with first and how to allocate resources to deal with them. In the commercial sector, attacks on electronic financial transactions have resulted in great financial losses and corresponding reductions in user confidence. Electronic transactions consist of funds transfers, data interchange, trade confirmations and benefits transfers. Many crimes that occur have plagued the industry for years like theft, service denial, extortion demands or fraud. Technology has however; greatly magnified the ability of major crimes to be committed in a matter of seconds. Electronic security is an industry that is growing and becoming globalised. This industry offers services in the categories of assessment, access and utilization. To demonstrate the severity of attacks on April, 2009, Chinese and Russian spies managed to infiltrate the United States of America electrical grid and inserted disruptive software into the system (Cetron, et al, 2009). An attack which occurred prior to this one on September 2008 would have caused the collapse of the global economy were it not for intervention. Unidentified hackers robbed the lucrative American financial market accounts a total of five hundred and fifty million dollars in a little less than two hours. If the accounts would not have been closed by the Treasury Department they would have lost almost six trillion dollars. This would have caused the global economy to collapse in approximately twenty four hours. One security threat is phishing. Phishing involves the acquisition of sensitive information like passwords, credit card details, usernames and pin numbers. It makes its presentation as being a legal entity. The unsuspecting victims are lured by receiving communications which purport to be from a popular website or payment processors. It is usually done through instant messaging services or emails (Shu-Min & Shann-Bin, 2006). These communications directs the users to enter their details at a fraudulent website which bears a great semblance to the authentic one. Phishing attacks were observed on two popular brands which provide payment services for banks globally in the United States of America in February 2010. The fraudsters created phishing sites in English and other languages, the most popular being French. These websites targeted customers by sending spam mails with the subject proving the card number and claiming that there was a risk of fraudulent transactions taking place. This attack was created using two types of phishing websites. The first utilised Uniform Resource Locators which were created with domain names with many top level domain variants. The most popular domain which was utilised was . cz which represented the Czech Republic. Upon entering their sensitive information into a card holder page for the false verification, the page redirected to the real website. The second attack utilised Uniform Resource Locators with Internet Protocol domains which were hosted on servers based in the United States (Glaessner, 2002). The Uniform Resource Locators’ strings were very long, typically with more than seven hundred characters. The pages asked for sensitive data but had an auto signed debit card or credit card number. This auto signing was done by placing stolen numbers of cards obtained from earlier attacks on the form. Upon receipt of information the page was redirected to a blank page. Cross site scripting is a form of phishing that occurs in programs or websites that allow user input. If the input data is not properly sanitized the program may then process thee input or execute the codes which the original program was not to do. This has been used to redirect users to fake websites. Users are advised not to click on suspicious links in emails and to check the Uniform Resource Locator’s of the website to authenticate brands. It is also advised that one should type the brand domain name directly into the browser address instead of following links. The use of security software has also been recommended. Pharming involves redirecting the redirection of websites traffic and taking it to a false website. Pharming is done by either converting the hosts file on the victims’ computer or exploiting Domain Name Systems servers’ software (Basu, 2009). These Domain Names Systems servers main task is to convert internet names to their real addresses. A compromised server therefore does not direct traffic to legitimate websites. Highly vulnerable sites of compromised are near internet leaves. If wrong entries on a computer’s host file are made it results in circumvention of name lookup using its own name to Internet Protocol mapping, this makes it a popular target for malware. Once it is rewritten a user can be redirected to a fake copy. The better targets for pharming are desktop computers as they receive poor administration in comparison to most other internet services. Host file compromises can compromise the network router. Many routers specify Domain Name Systems to clients on the network and wrong information here spoils the entire local area network. A compromise in routers is very hard to detect. Pharming also occurs by infecting the victim’s computer with malware or a virus. This causes the redirection of a website to a fake one. An unsuspecting user may enter information site unaware. To avoid pharming, users are advised to search for details that prove that the website is authentic. Typing the sites address into the browser bar also offers some protection. Use of an antivirus to reduce virus infiltration into the computers is also recommended. Vigilance is important in warding off attacks. Trojan horses are also a great threat to internet security. Trojan horses present themselves as valuable software which is available for downloading on the internet. This fools many people into downloading the virus in the presumption that it is another application. A Trojan horse is usually separated into parts which are the client and the server. The client is usually disguised as important software and is situated in some sharing networks like peer to peer or uncertified websites for downloads. As soon as the client Trojan is executed in the computer, the attacker who is the person operating the server has great control over the computer and can destroy it depending on his purpose. The spread of the Trojan horse virus can occur through email attachments using various spamming techniques. Malware creators spread the virus through chat software like Skype and Yahoo Messenger. The virus may also infect other machines by distributing copies of itself to those in the address book of the infected computer. There are many types of Trojan horses. Remote access Trojans give attackers complete control of he victim’s computer and access to any information stored in the files. Password Trojans copy all passwords and look for passwords as they are keyed into a computer and send them to a certain email address. Key loggers log the keystrokes used by victims and send the log information to the attacker and can be configured to online and offline modes of recording. Destructive Trojans cause destructions to files and deletes them completely from infected computers. They are able to delete all system files of a computer (Basu, 2009). While there are other types of Trojans not mentioned here, it should be noted that a Trojan may work with a combination of some of the functionalities explained. To best avoid a Trojan hose virus attack, one should open email attachments or files received from strange senders. Installing and updating an antivirus program is also helpful. For secure electronic online transactions certain criteria have to be addressed and met. There must be secure access control which determines who has access to a system and be able to deny access to intruders. Proper authentication of users and message integrity must also be established. Privacy of the parties involved must also be safeguarded and maintained (Shu-Min & Shann-Bin, 2006). Non-repudiation must be ensured where the sender cannot deny (falsely) sending a message. The use of online signatures has also been manipulated to commit fraud. Electronic signatures are a recognized electronic way of showing that a person has accepted the contents of a message sent electronically. These signatures are increasingly being used in electronic commerce and have evolved into digitized signatures which are encrypted and more secure than a simple electronic signature. While they are themselves subject to fraud the purpose of their creation was to combat fraud (Hansen, 1995). Electronic signatures are based on legal principles which have to be understood by the institutions which wish to use it. The use of digital signatures is a code that authenticates the origins of a document. A well done electronic signature causes the signer to be uniquely identified. It also causes the document to be locked using encryption technology and is electronically stamped throughout the process with time and date. It also stores the document for access without fear of being lost or its existence denied. The security of electronic financial transactions can also be enhanced by the use of digital certificates against phishing and pharming. To avoid manipulation of transactions in signature based online banking, utility of Class-3 electronic card readers should be explored. Virus scanners should be used to protect from Trojan horses. Care when downloading software should be exercised. With the mass adoption of technology, countries around the world are increasingly using technological based solutions to address their needs and carry out their functions. The use of the internet has created a highly competitive market. While cyber crime has not infiltrated or integrated itself equally in many countries it is an industry that is growing very fast and deserves much global attention (Shu-Min & Shann-Bin, 2006). As earlier discussed, it has the potential of destroying whole markets and creating great havoc. Attempts to control cyber crime have not been concerted. Many challenges have arisen in trying to control this threat. Technology is a fast changing and cyber crime has achieved very high levels of sophistication. Cyber criminals have designed malware which are virtually undetectable and are difficult to diagnose. It has proved challenging to design and keep up with these creations (Glaessner, 2002). Due to the high levels of vulnerability to cyber attacks there is an urgent need to formulate clear policies. These policies should include guidelines on how to cyber crime is to be dealt with. This should include coming up with laws that will outline prosecution of cyber criminals due to the potential of these criminals to create damage and go unpunished and detected. Users of the internet and the various services it offers should also assume personal responsibility for their own safety (Cetron, et al, 2009). Studies have shown that the ‘human factor’ is largely the cause of the success of cyber crime rather than advancements in technology. In the United States, despite various public campaigns on internet security, people continue to be reckless with their personal information. This leaves them very vulnerable to attacks by cyber criminals. Predictions have been made that incidences of cyber crime will continue to increase. Users should therefore be very vigilant in monitoring their information. Software to combat cyber crime is available and users should take the initiative to acquire this software to alert them of suspicious websites or claims. They should also regularly update their software like antivirus which is highly dynamic due to the creation of new viruses and malware that occurs at a very high rate (almost daily). In conclusion, electronic financial transactions have created great savings in terms of financial savings for both providers and users and reduced the wastage of time. The use of this technology has correspondingly exposed its users newer forms of crime and every effort must be made to combat cyber crime.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues - Same-Sex Marriage and...

Same-Sex Marriage and the Destruction of American Culture The late 20th century disintegration of marriage is epoch-defining and hazardous to moral health. The question of legally recognizing same-sex marriage - thrust upon us by recent court decisions - culminates this disintegration. There are many reasons why the ills of marriage are so pivotal. Marriage is the principle of sexual morality. Immoral sexual acts are often wrong for other reasons, too, such as the injustice of imposing oneself sexually upon another without consent. But all immoral sexual activity is wrong because it is non-marital. Our law until recently recognized this pivotal role of marriage. As United States Supreme Court†¦show more content†¦Abortion as a legal liberty may now have roots in the economic needs and aspirations of contemporary women. That is, the abortion license is thought to be a necessary corollary of womens economic and political equality. And abortion liberty has always had a certain eugenic coloring. Roe v. Wade was nevertheless a decision midwifed by sexual freedom. Abortion was backup contraception. Thirty-five million legal abortions have not eroded the staunch pro-life commitments of more than half of this countrys inhabitants. We may live in a culture of death, but many escape its corrupting influence. Indeed, the vast majority of Americans, whether avowedly pro-life or pro-choice, know that abortion is wrong. If there is a classic case proving the Apostles vision of a natural law written on the hearts of all, abortion is it. Many who support abortion rights obligingly cite their personal opposition to abortion, and even a pro-abortion President hoped to make it rare. At a Congressional hearing in July 1999, a New York Representative, who would more fittingly be described as the Ayatollah of abortion rights, could not help speaking of moms and expectant mothers carrying babies. Catching himself, he referred very deliberately, though unconvincingly, to pregnant women. However, no one asks a pregnant woman how her fetus is doing. One asks how theShow MoreRelated Let Gays Marry and Leave Marriage Alone Essay1278 Words   |  6 Pageswill summarize some of the key points from the essay, Let Gays Marry, by Andrew Sullivan, and the essay, Leave Marriage Alone, by William Bennett. Some of these main points are taken from mutual beliefs of both authors and others are derived from the opposing opinions of the two. The first summary of Andrew Sullivan’s essay is a reflection of Andrew Sullivan’s stance of the issue. The original essay was in favor of allowing same sex marriage in America. 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